The ancient capital of the Kalinga dynasty, and presently the capital of Orissa, Bhubaneswar's history is of over 2000 years. Sisupalgarh which is situated at the suburbs of the city , once was the capital of Sovereign Kharvel .
The elephant caves writing at the Khandagiri and Udaigiri mountains are proof of the region's ancient times.The name of Bhubaneswar is taken from the Sanskrit word Tribhuvaneswara, which is another name of Lord Shiva. Bhubaneswar means the “Lord of the Universe”. During the period of 261 B.C.the great Mauryan emperor Ashoka captured the kalinga after a bloody battle in which lakhs of soldiers lost their life .
King Ashoka renounced bloodshed and embraced Buddism after the massacre of Kalinga war.Under the rule of Kharavela in the 1st century BC, Orissa regained its lost fame and Bhubaneswar again became the centre of activities. Khandagiri and Udayagiri are the most significant monastery caves which were constructed during this period. During the 7th century, Hinduism supplemented Jainism and Kesari and Ganga sovereignty did a lot for the improvement of Orissan civilization. Bhubaneswar was the magnetic centre of Lord Shiva and was home to some 7,000 temples devoted to different god and which about 500 survive now. The glorious temple of Lord Lingaraj is the most magnificent temple of Orissa .